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python - 如何将Keras .h5导出到tensorflow .pb?

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问题描述

我有一个使用新数据集的调优的初始模型,并在Keras中将其保存为".h5"模型。现在我的目标是在仅接受".pb"扩展的android Tensorflow上运行我的模型。问题是在Keras或tensorflow中是否有任何库可以进行此转换?

 

最佳方法

Keras本身不包括将TensorFlow图导出为协议缓冲区文件(.pb, Protocol Buffer)的任何方法,但是您可以使用常规TensorFlow实用程序来实现。 这里是一篇博客文章,解释了如何使用TensorFlow中包含的实用程序脚本freeze_graph.py做到这一点,一种典型实现方式。

但是,我个人觉得必须创建一个检查点,然后运行一个外部脚本来获取模型,并且我更喜欢从自己的Python代码中执行此操作,所以我使用了这样的函数:

def freeze_session(session, keep_var_names=None, output_names=None, clear_devices=True):
    """
    Freezes the state of a session into a pruned computation graph.

    Creates a new computation graph where variable nodes are replaced by
    constants taking their current value in the session. The new graph will be
    pruned so subgraphs that are not necessary to compute the requested
    outputs are removed.
    @param session The TensorFlow session to be frozen.
    @param keep_var_names A list of variable names that should not be frozen,
                          or None to freeze all the variables in the graph.
    @param output_names Names of the relevant graph outputs.
    @param clear_devices Remove the device directives from the graph for better portability.
    @return The frozen graph definition.
    """
    graph = session.graph
    with graph.as_default():
        freeze_var_names = list(set(v.op.name for v in tf.global_variables()).difference(keep_var_names or []))
        output_names = output_names or []
        output_names += [v.op.name for v in tf.global_variables()]
        input_graph_def = graph.as_graph_def()
        if clear_devices:
            for node in input_graph_def.node:
                node.device = ""
        frozen_graph = tf.graph_util.convert_variables_to_constants(
            session, input_graph_def, output_names, freeze_var_names)
        return frozen_graph

该实现从上述博客中的代码文件freeze_graph.py中受到了启发,参数也跟这个文件中的脚本类似。[注: session是TensorFlow会话对象]。当您要保持某些变量不冻结时(例如,对于有状态模型),才需要keep_var_names,而通常情况下是不需要的。 output_names是一个列表,其中包含产生所需输出的操作的名称。 clear_devices只是删除了所有设备指令以使图形更易于移植。因此,对于具有一个输出的典型Keras model,执行以下操作:

from keras import backend as K

# Create, compile and train model...

frozen_graph = freeze_session(K.get_session(),
                              output_names=[out.op.name for out in model.outputs])

然后,您可以像往常一样使用tf.train.write_graph将图形写入文件:

tf.train.write_graph(frozen_graph, "some_directory", "my_model.pb", as_text=False)

 

次佳方法

freeze_session方法可以正常工作。但是与保存到检查点文件相比,使用TensorFlow随附的freeze_graph工具对我来说似乎更简单,因为它更易于维护。您需要做的只是以下两个步骤:

首先,在您的Keras代码model.fit(...)之后添加并训练模型:

from keras import backend as K
import tensorflow as tf
print(model.output.op.name)
saver = tf.train.Saver()
saver.save(K.get_session(), '/tmp/keras_model.ckpt')

然后cd到您的TensorFlow根目录,运行:

python tensorflow/python/tools/freeze_graph.py \
--input_meta_graph=/tmp/keras_model.ckpt.meta \
--input_checkpoint=/tmp/keras_model.ckpt \
--output_graph=/tmp/keras_frozen.pb \
--output_node_names="<output_node_name_printed_in_step_1>" \
--input_binary=true

 

第三种方法

以下简单示例(XOR示例)显示了如何导出Keras模型(采用h5格式和pb格式),以及如何在Python和C++中使用该模型:


train.py:

import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf


def freeze_session(session, keep_var_names=None, output_names=None, clear_devices=True):
    """
    Freezes the state of a session into a pruned computation graph.

    Creates a new computation graph where variable nodes are replaced by
    constants taking their current value in the session. The new graph will be
    pruned so subgraphs that are not necessary to compute the requested
    outputs are removed.
    @param session The TensorFlow session to be frozen.
    @param keep_var_names A list of variable names that should not be frozen,
                          or None to freeze all the variables in the graph.
    @param output_names Names of the relevant graph outputs.
    @param clear_devices Remove the device directives from the graph for better portability.
    @return The frozen graph definition.
    """
    graph = session.graph
    with graph.as_default():
        freeze_var_names = list(set(v.op.name for v in tf.global_variables()).difference(keep_var_names or []))
        output_names = output_names or []
        output_names += [v.op.name for v in tf.global_variables()]
        input_graph_def = graph.as_graph_def()
        if clear_devices:
            for node in input_graph_def.node:
                node.device = ''
        frozen_graph = tf.graph_util.convert_variables_to_constants(
            session, input_graph_def, output_names, freeze_var_names)
        return frozen_graph


X = np.array([[0,0], [0,1], [1,0], [1,1]], 'float32')
Y = np.array([[0], [1], [1], [0]], 'float32')

model = tf.keras.models.Sequential()
model.add(tf.keras.layers.Dense(64, input_dim=2, activation='relu'))
model.add(tf.keras.layers.Dense(64, activation='relu'))
model.add(tf.keras.layers.Dense(64, activation='relu'))
model.add(tf.keras.layers.Dense(64, activation='relu'))
model.add(tf.keras.layers.Dense(1, activation='sigmoid'))

model.compile(loss='mean_squared_error', optimizer='adam', metrics=['binary_accuracy'])

model.fit(X, Y, batch_size=1, nb_epoch=100, verbose=0)

# inputs:  ['dense_input']
print('inputs: ', [input.op.name for input in model.inputs])

# outputs:  ['dense_4/Sigmoid']
print('outputs: ', [output.op.name for output in model.outputs])

model.save('./xor.h5')

frozen_graph = freeze_session(tf.keras.backend.get_session(), output_names=[out.op.name for out in model.outputs])
tf.train.write_graph(frozen_graph, './', 'xor.pbtxt', as_text=True)
tf.train.write_graph(frozen_graph, './', 'xor.pb', as_text=False)

预测:

import numpy as np
import tensorflow as tf

model = tf.keras.models.load_model('./xor.h5')

# 0 ^ 0 =  [[0.01974997]]
print('0 ^ 0 = ', model.predict(np.array([[0, 0]])))

# 0 ^ 1 =  [[0.99141496]]
print('0 ^ 1 = ', model.predict(np.array([[0, 1]])))

# 1 ^ 0 =  [[0.9897714]]
print('1 ^ 0 = ', model.predict(np.array([[1, 0]])))

# 1 ^ 1 =  [[0.00406971]]
print('1 ^ 1 = ', model.predict(np.array([[1, 1]])))

opencv-predict.py:

import numpy as np
import cv2 as cv


model = cv.dnn.readNetFromTensorflow('./xor.pb')

# 0 ^ 0 =  [[0.01974997]]
model.setInput(np.array([[0, 0]]), name='dense_input')
print('0 ^ 0 = ', model.forward(outputName='dense_4/Sigmoid'))

# 0 ^ 1 =  [[0.99141496]]
model.setInput(np.array([[0, 1]]), name='dense_input')
print('0 ^ 1 = ', model.forward(outputName='dense_4/Sigmoid'))

# 1 ^ 0 =  [[0.9897714]]
model.setInput(np.array([[1, 0]]), name='dense_input')
print('1 ^ 0 = ', model.forward(outputName='dense_4/Sigmoid'))

# 1 ^ 1 =  [[0.00406971]]
model.setInput(np.array([[1, 1]]), name='dense_input')
print('1 ^ 1 = ', model.forward(outputName='dense_4/Sigmoid'))

predict.cpp:

#include <cstdlib>
#include <iostream>
#include <opencv2/opencv.hpp>

int main(int argc, char **argv)
{
    cv::dnn::Net net;

    net = cv::dnn::readNetFromTensorflow("./xor.pb");

    // 0 ^ 0 = [0.018541215]
    float x0[] = { 0, 0 };
    net.setInput(cv::Mat(1, 2, CV_32F, x0), "dense_input");
    std::cout << "0 ^ 0 = " << net.forward("dense_4/Sigmoid") << std::endl;

    // 0 ^ 1 = [0.98295897]
    float x1[] = { 0, 1 };
    net.setInput(cv::Mat(1, 2, CV_32F, x1), "dense_input");
    std::cout << "0 ^ 1 = " << net.forward("dense_4/Sigmoid") << std::endl;

    // 1 ^ 0 = [0.98810625]
    float x2[] = { 1, 0 };
    net.setInput(cv::Mat(1, 2, CV_32F, x2), "dense_input");
    std::cout << "1 ^ 0 = " << net.forward("dense_4/Sigmoid") << std::endl;

    // 1 ^ 1 = [0.010002014]
    float x3[] = { 1, 1 };
    net.setInput(cv::Mat(1, 2, CV_32F, x3), "dense_input");
    std::cout << "1 ^ 1 = " << net.forward("dense_4/Sigmoid") << std::endl;

    return EXIT_SUCCESS;
}

 

.pb

参考资料

 

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